[Translator’s notes appear in square brackets.]

[Personal information has been redacted.]

[The excerpt below is from the section of the article that pertains to the Baha’i Faith]


[Adapted from website:] Mohsen Kadivar Official Website

[Date:] 22 Dey 1388 [12 January 2010]


The Citizenship Rights of Baha’is from the Perspective of Master [Montazeri]

[By:] Mohsen Kadivar

Kayhan Newspaper claimed in a special news item, dated 21 Dey 1388 [11 January 2010], “The Thinking Room of the Green Sedition [Movement] Was Baha’i.”

It said, “New clues have emerged from the active role of the Baha’i colonial party in managing the Green Sedition [Movement]. According to Kayhan’s managing director, ‘The main operators of the Jaras site have special ties with Baha’is and Baha’ism. For example, Mohsen Kadivar, the fugitive to the United States of America, who pretended to be a clergyman, made a concerted effort to finally obtain a fatwa on the rights of the Baha’is by deceiving Mr. Montazeri! This is unprecedented in Shiite history, especially since this English-made and perverse Baha’i sect had openly fought the Mahdism and Imamate—one of the main tenets of Shiism—in recent decades. Some reports released last year suggest that some of Kadivar’s relatives are Baha’is.”

Kayhan Newspaper, which is funded by the treasury and supervised by the representative of the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic, has tried to attribute the Green Movement to Baha’is.

Kayhan has told several lies in its imaginary story, including the following:

First of all, I have never talked about the Baha’is with my teacher, the late Grand Ayatollah Montazeri, let alone asked him to issue an istifta[1] about them. [There are] two historical fatwas[2] from the late scholar about the Baha’is that, unfortunately, I had not requested and are the admirable conquests in the recognition of the citizenship rights of humans and a [landmark] in Shiite jurisprudence.

Secondly, the rumour that some of my relatives are Baha’is is a complete lie made by the sick mind of the fully authorized representative of Mr. Khamenei.O Prophet, Show me your proof if what you say is true.”[3]

Kayhan Newspaper, whose insult and disrespect to that brave and great authority reached its peak during the past two decades, does not give up its obscene and shameful act and continues to violate Islamic courtesy, even now that that divine scholar has left this world. “There is sickness in their hearts, and Allah only lets their sickness increase. They will suffer a painful punishment for their lies.”[4]

According to the rule of consistency, the strength of the claims of the representative of the supreme leader in Kayhan, is similar to the strength of the fatwa attributed to the supreme leader in his al- istifta’at site, and the legal force of his ward is equal to the jurisprudential force of his master [Khamenei]. “And the flimsiest of all shelters is certainly that of a spider, if only they knew.”[5]

Since the practice of this newspaper, like other propaganda organs of the oppressor government, is based on lies, slander and insults, I consider this brief reference to be sufficient in defence of the obligatory rights of my master [Ayatollah Montazeri], and I do not waste the time that should be spent criticizing “The pillar of religious tyranny ” by responding to the repeated harassment of that unjustified agent. Peace be upon you.

Due to the enthusiasm of that newspaper and other coup-plotters with regard to the teacher and student’s opinion about Baha’is, the full text of the fatwa of that erudite teacher (quoted from His Holiness’ website) and the student’s answer to a similar question (quoted from the book of Haqq al-Nass) follows:


First Fatwa: The Rights of the Followers of the Baha’i Sect

Question: With greetings and due respect to His Holiness, the Grand Ayatollah Montazeri

My question is about the legal status of the followers of the Baha’i sect and Your Excellency’s opinion regarding this behaviour. Of course, it is clear to all of us that Baha’is have never had religious legitimacy from the point of view of Islamic jurisprudence. However, the question is whether, regardless of the religious rights mentioned in the law for official minorities such as Jews and Zoroastrians, the followers of this sect have citizenship rights or not. How much does Islamic compassion apply to such groups?

I wish your health and stability in all stages of your service to the Divine Threshold.



In the Name of God

With greetings and praise

The Baha’i sect is not considered a religious minority in the constitution, because it does not have a heavenly book such as that of Jews, Christians, or Zoroastrians, but [its members] are natives of this country; they have the right to this land and can enjoy the citizenship rights. They should also enjoy the Islamic compassion emphasized by the Quran and the religious leaders. God willing, you will succeed.

Hussein-Ali Montazeri

25 Ordibehesht 1387 [14 May 2008]


The Second Fatwa: The Followers of the Baha’i Sect and Citizenship Rights

Question: With greetings to His Holiness Ayatollah Montazeri

In one of your answers with regard to the Baha’i sect, after pointing out that this sect is not considered an official minority in the constitution due to the lack of a heavenly book, you said, “But because they are citizens of this country and have the right to this land, they can enjoy citizenship rights.” Following the publication of this response, some followers of this sect abused the term “citizenship rights” and made many demands, and it was even said that the view of His Holiness had changed about this sect from the years before the revolution. It is requested that you express your opinion on this issue as well as the meaning of citizenship rights, in order to remove any ambiguity. Thank you.



In the Name of God

With greetings and exaltation

My view of the perverse Baha’i sect is the same as in the years before the revolution and has not changed. In general, people who do not belong to any of the heavenly religions, according to the [Quranic verse] “Allah does not forbid you from dealing kindly and fairly with those who have neither fought nor driven you out of your homes. Surely Allah loves those who are fair.” [Surah Mumtahanah, Verse 8][6] and the letter of Imam Ali (PBUH) to Malik al-Ashtar which said, [Arabic Verse][7] “Feel in your heart mercy for the subordinates [people] and love and kindness for them and do not be like a vicious beast towards them to seize their food, for they are of two types: either they are your brother in religion or are your counterpart in creation. (Nahj al-Balagha – letter no 53)”, their human rights must be respected.

Citizenship is also a general term and its limits should be determined according to the custom and constitution that is accepted by the majority of the people. Of course, if those who seek enmity with the people of the country and cooperate with foreign enemies, and their cooperation is proven to a competent court according to the laws of the country, they should be punished according to the law. Their citizenship does not prevent the implementation of the law. It is necessary to take care that the youth of the country do not fall prey to their bad propaganda, and if dealing with them strengthens them, it should be avoided. I hope that, God willing, you will succeed.

Hussein-Ali Montazeri

25 Khordad 1387 [14 June 2018]


The Citizenship Rights of Baha’is

All human beings, regardless of their religious beliefs, must enjoy human rights. No human being can be deprived of the minimum human rights (those rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration and the Two Covenants) because of his or her religious beliefs, even if it is wrong in our view. The enjoyment of these rights has nothing to do with the validity of religious beliefs. Basically, human rights are the rights of all human beings, not only the rights of the monotheists, the believers and the righteous.

The Holy Quran recognizes the Abrahamic religions as divine religions and mentions their followers as the People of the Book. The basic beliefs of Islam—according to the Holy Quran—are theism, belief in the day of resurrection and belief in the prophethood of Muhammad ibn Abd Allah (PBUH). The Holy Quran explicitly considers Muhammad (PBUH) and Islam to be the last prophet and divine religion, and considers any claim that contradicts this basic belief to be false, unjust, and a departure from the faith. Muslims agree with this basic belief without any differences.


Mohsen Kadivar: Question and Answer and Human Rights and Religious Intellectualism, Aftab- Student Monthly Publication of Waterloo University, Canada, No. 6, Bahman and Esfand 1384 [January/February and February/March 2006], Book of “Haqq al-Nass”: (Islam and Human Rights) - Page 163, Kavir Publications, Tehran, First Edition 1387 [2008/2009], Fourth Edition, 1388 [2009/2010]



[1] [Istifta:  Request for religious advice]

[2] [Fatwa:  A legal opinion or decree handed down by an Islamic religious leader]

[3] [Quran 2:111] https://quran.com/2

[4] [Quran 2:10] https://quran.com/2

[5] [Quran 29:41] https://quran.com/29

[6] [Quran 60:8] https://quran.com/60

[7] [The original text is as follows:]

"‎و اشعر قلبک الرحمة للرعیة و المحبة لهم و اللطف بهم و لا تکونن علیهم سبعا ضاریا تغتنم اکلهم فانهم صنفان:

اما اخ لک فی‌الدین او نظیر لک فی الخلق "